The Epic Festival

I think of poets as outlaw visionaries in a way.
~ Jim Jarmusch

Welcome all! Whether you are an avid theatre lover or just browsing through, feel free to enjoy our collaboratively created wiki page. Focusing on the Elizabethan era, our group has explored varying aspects of the theatre. Click one of our names listed below to go to a specific section, or let the scroll be your guide to discover what the Elizabethan theatre experience was like. From performance space, music, costume, makeup and hair to stage combat, with a special concluding music video from Thomas Dekker's The Shoemaker's Holiday, you are sure to be enlightened and entertained!


Performance Spaces

According to John Gassner, author of Medieval and Tudor Drama, "the governing principle is simply festival theatre." Viewing and researching performance spaces of the medieval period can unearth the relationship between theatre and human. By starting with the grandiose theme of festival, a new historian can begin to see performance, at this time, as celebration and ceremony. Placement of performance spaces depends on certain factors, theatre attendance, visibility, proper staging requirements, and meeting the directors vision, etc. Through this Wiki, our group hopes to document the evolution of the performance space and the continued theme of festival.

J. Kang and K. Chourmouziadou, of the University of Sheffield School of Architecture, introduce this section of the wiki by stating, "Extensive research on ancient theaters in Greece started when the first historical excavations revealed evidence of the spaces used for performance" (1). When researching performance spaces students will find information, publications, and other forms of investigations within several fields. Scattered throughout drama, archeology, architecture, and philosophy, the study of the performance space is crucial in understanding human nature and the universal will to perform. By being students of the performance space, we can see how "changes in performance style led to innovations in theater form" (1).

Instead of presenting a time line, this section will focus on the three distinctive forms of performance spaces; specifically, the round, the pageant wagon, and the house or hall form, similar to The Globe. Focusing on these different forms reveals and unearths the evolution of the performance space. By doing so, as students of the theater, and of life, we will have a better understanding of the beauty and festival that so constantly surrounds us.

Gassner describes the evolution of the performance space; he states, "even after the early drama left the church building, the main objective was to make a ceremony of play-going and play-production such as prevails in ritualistic performances" (xiv). In this endeavor, there were several ways to accomplish the festival performance within the spaces means. One type of performance space was the round. Gassner describes the round as, "a raised earthen (or occasionally stone) amphitheater" (xiv). The round would encompass a central place, the perimeter of a plain. In the first picture of this Wiki one can see a developed, round style, amphitheater. The mound, which was used for seating (in the picture this area has been developed to include seats), surrounded the round. The very front of the round was used for the plays action and kept free from the audience. Except for this one area which was reserved for the actors, the rest of the area was free for spectators, making the round style theater one of the most accessible and functional styles of early performance space.

A Pageant Wagon
The pageant style of production was also an accessible and functional performance space–as Gassner states; the pageant system was, "A peoples’ theater in the fullest sense–a festival lasting several days or longer inspired by epic or "universal" matter" (xvi). The pageant system is recorded as following the cycle productions or performances. This is fitting considering the pageant wagons moved throughout the city; one wagon after another, the beginning of the play may begin at the first wagon at the first stop in the city, and the end of the play would conclude at the last wagon at the last stop in the city. The pageant performance space needed large casts and often participated with the public. For these reasons, the pageant system was largely successful, and it belongs as one of the great historic festivals of the performance space.

The "house" or "mansion" form evolved in this performance period. An arrangement of structures would be aligned in a half circle or a straight line. These structures were built along an elevated block in order to perform for more theater goers. This arrangement also centralized a theaters location. Similar to the round and amphitheater style, the "house" or "mansion" style made the localization concrete. This facet also effected the plays performance. The stage usually included technical functions like, secret doors, turrets, movable walls, extensions, sculptures, and these features may be active; as Gassner states, "a sculptured set-piece, the "dragon's head." Out of its "mouth" devils issued amid appropriate brimstone" (xv). The performers were challenging themselves and pushing their performance spaces to new boundaries.

The theater goer was as much apart of the performance space as the stage itself. As seen in the picture below, the "groundlings" seated closest to the stage would often see the action spill over, off the stage. The common theater goer often became part of the play as performers ran into the audience; similar to the pageant performance, the audience became part of the show. The bourgeoisie would be seated in the grandstand.

This truly was the beginning of modern performance spaces!

The evolution of the performance space has not ended. As performers are constantly in flux, so is the theater, so is the performance space, and so goes the beauty of the theater. By viewing medieval and renaissance performance spaces the modern theater goer can see just how heavily the classic artists of their times influence the artists of the modern and the postmodern. The times we live in now are tumultuous and performance reflects this. Performance spaces are also adversely effected by outside forces.

For these reasons, those knowledgeable of the epic past, the ups and downs performance has gone through; they should keep performance alive and well by supporting theater wear functional and wear possible; because honestly, a theater is where we decide, it could be a park, a parking lot, an alley, or a stadium, an amphitheater. Theater and the performance space are not locations, they are states of mind.

ab actu ad posse valet illatio
From the past one can infer the future.

The Swan Theater c.1596

A Sneak Peek Into the Modern Theater Environment of London.
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Elizabethan Music and its Role in the Theatre

By Lindsey Perry
Medieval to Elizabethan

Like most everything that entered into the Renaissance era, music too came out reborn and transformed. Shifting away from the medieval period’s markedly simpler songs, the Elizabethan period in the latter half of the 16th century saw a dramatic change in the way music was created and appreciated.
Just as hierarchies were embedded within Elizabethan social structure, music too was divided into varying sections based on its allotted standing within society. Typically, the varying musical styles fell under five categories: court, church, street, town, and theatre. These categories were distinguished based on social appreciation and instrumental styles.

Court Music
According to Viola King in her article “Elizabethan Music,” Elizabethan Court music was considered “complex high society music” only afforded by the rich. The growing popularity of “stringed and keyboard instruments…such as the hautboy (an early oboe), harpsichord, viol (an early violin), spinet and virginals” were responsible for the perceived sophistication and refined style appreciated in large part by the Court of Queen Elizabeth I. It is recorded that “she employed at least seventy musicians and singers” and that despite profession, all members of her court were required to possess musical proficiency. In order to maintain high social standing, this intellectual court music was adopted by the wealthy and “every nobleman had in his employment at least one musician” in order to emit a prestigious lifestyle. Even the middle class fell under the rigid social expectations, and “every person of the upper or middle classes was expected to have the ability to play an instrument and sight-read music.” The prevalence of music in the lives of nobility demonstrates the growing appreciation for it in Elizabethan culture.

Church Music
Cross and Clef

Again according to King, due to the amount of people that attended Sunday church services during the Elizabethan era, religious songs and “hymns became immensely popular,” and it is noted that “in the 1500’s England was at the peak of its original style of church music.” Remembered as distinctly beautiful, church music from this era centered on “two…forms of music for the voice,” the Madrigal and the Ayre. Other “forms of liturgical music were canzonets, ballets and sacred songs.” Choral polyphony, “keyed or stringed instruments capable of playing multiple melodies at once, became a necessary element” in church (as well as secular) settings. This expansion of musical possibilities emerging out of the artistic Renaissance developed musicians and composers into recognized professions. The advancement of these professions was amplified due to their part within the church. “Composers in the Elizabethan era were often employed as church organists, court players for Queen Elizabeth I, or composers of religious anthems, hymns and psalms.”

Street/Town Music
Easily combined due to their similarities in style and social appreciation, both street and town music were considered music of the commoners and lower classes:

“The poor could not afford to hear great skilled musicians and high society music…their songs were less sophisticated, more fun, and unrestrained…Street music was performed at fairs (whose dates were dictated by saint days, religious festivals, etc.) as well as at weekly markets. The music that the street musicians played was predominantly popular traditional songs and ballads, very different from the sophisticated Elizabethan Court Music. In the larger towns there were a group of official town musicians called the "Waits". They were originally given high-pitched pipes and hautboys to sound alarms, but it eventually evolved into a form of entertainment, and they were expected to compose and perform music for all major town functions. The music of the low-class was fun, and brought joy and laughter to people who had none” (King).
Music and Stage: Stefano Landi's "Sant'Alessio," 1634

Theatre Music
The dramatically new way in which music was produced and appreciated during the Elizabethan period was influenced in large part by the popularly emerging theatre productions, which gave musicians a new stage for performance and audiences a more cohesive form of cultural entertainment. Dramatic necessity within theatre combined with the advancement of new polyphony instruments allowed music to be expressive and portray “varying moods when it accompanied plays” (King). The addition of music to theatrical productions made both increasingly popular. In his essay “Hamlet: voice, music, sound,” Bruce Jonson explains this cultural expansion with cultural reasoning, the Elizabethans were an auditory audience. In comprehending a play from the Elizabethan era, it is important to note that "the Elizabethan ear was arguably characterized by an alertness that we have lost" (258), meaning that plays were perceived at a much more advanced auditory level than today. In point, "the Elizabethan audience experienced drama as an acoustic phenomenon, and with a much more sophisticated ear" (258).

Another important aspect of music in relation to theatre was its physical interaction with the stage; said simply, “location on stage meant everything to a theatre musician” (Music). The placement of the musicians on or around the stage produced different effects and moods for the audience. The most common placement for Elizabethan theatre musicians to accompany a play was “in a section of the Lords Rooms…a gallery immediately above stage wall and facing the back of the actors” (Elizabethan). However, “theatre musicians also took strategic places on the theatre stage and were even known to play under the stage, giving the impression of distance or providing an eerie atmosphere” (Elizabethan).

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Modern Depiction of Elizabethan Costumes
Typically the stage of the Elizabethan era was not as extravagant as some we see today. Where the set lacked, the costumes flourished. An acting company would invest enormous amounts of funds to ensure they were showy and authentic. English sumptuary laws determined what clothing was permissible for a person of a given rank to wear. A craftsman could "wear no suits of clothing worth more than 40s., nor precious stones, silk, silver, nor items made of gold or silver, embroidered, enameled or of silk, and the wives and daughters to wear no silk veils but only of thread made within the realm, and no fur or budge but only lamb, coney, cat and fox" (Phillips). Because of these laws, acting companies were able to obtain costumes from craftsmen that had obtained clothing above their rank. Since they were not allowed to wear it they would often sell them to actors. "it is the English usage for eminent lords or knights at their decease to bequeath and leave almost the best of their clothes to their serving men, which it is unseemly for the latter to wear, so that they offer them for sale for a small sum to the actors" (costumes).

You are what you wear and so the primary function of Elizabethan costumes were to aid the audience in identifying a character’s rank and occupation and mood. Color would often be a symbolic indicator of rank and emotional state.

Class allowed to wear by Sumptuary Laws
Royalty, Nobility, Members of the Council
Color of the church, Cardinal Woolsey often depicted wearing crimson.
Royalty, Nobility, Members of the Council
Often associated with the Virgin Mary
Queen, King, royal family
Purple always associated with royalty
Lower and upper classes
Pope is associated with the color white, used for baptism, marriage, ordinations, and dedications, also associated with innocence
Lower and upper classes
Associated with a monastic life and death
Lower and upper classes
Favorite color for the hose worn by medieval men
Lower and upper classes
Associated with the color of clothes worn by servants
Duchesses, Marquises, countesses, Dukes, and Earls
Associated with royalty and nobles
Lower and upper classes
Associated with the lovelorn and the medieval legend of Robin Hood

Stages of Dressing

For the male actors that had to dress as females, their task was a difficult one. Putting on an upper-class gown of the era was an intricate process. First, the structural items go on starting with the smock (also called a shift). A smock is undergarments warn to protect the outer garment from body oils and sweat. Next the stockings go on. Stockings at this time came up to just over the knee and so they needed to wear garters in order to keep their stockings up. The next article of clothing necessary was the corset. A corset is very tight and is stiffened with the use of whalebones or reeds. Next they would put on the Spanish Farthingale, a cone-shaped hoop skirt necessary to give the dress an A-line shape. A Bumroll would come next if they choose to wear one. A Bumroll is small, padded crescents worn around the hips in order to make the skirt stand out more.

Now that the structure is set, creativity and fashion can come into play. Depending on what style of gown that is being worn, a Petticoat or just a Kirtle and frontpart are chosen. Petticoats are typically only seen at the bottom of the dresses, when a Kirtle and frontpart are skirts or entire gowns worn under other gowns. A Partlet comes next, which is a shirt worn under the gown. It usually provides the collar and fills the low neckline of the gown. It is not an entire shirt because it ties just under the arms. Finally, the Gown and Sleeves are added. The Gown in this era laced in the front and had large shoulder rolls. An outfit is not complete without shoes to match, a hood or hat, and ruffs that clipped around the wrists and neck (Leed).
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Makeup & Hair


The use of cosmetics in the Elizabethan era burgeoned with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, who brought beauty and fashion into the spotlight in England and set a new standard for the "ideal woman". Combined with this new interest in appearances, England experienced a huge influx of what were previously considered foreign and exotic materials from which cosmetics could be made.

Dr. Shirley Nelson Garner of Stanford University in her essay "Let Her Paint an Inch Thick: Painted Ladies in Renaissance Drama" explains, "Crusaders, explorers, and travelers brought from Mediterranean countries, India, and the New World knowledge of cosmetic practices as well as many herbs, dyes, and other substances that composed perfumes and cosmetics." Thus makeup became more accessible to the upper as well as upper-middle classes.
Queen Elizabeth I
The perceptions of beauty at the time were quite different from what they are today, and women would go to great (and often dangerous) lengths to achieve them. Dark skin was associated with the working class who were exposed to the sun, whereas pale skin was seen as a sign of wealth and purity. White make up was applied heavily to reach the desired paleness, as well as to hide scars from common diseases such as small pox and signs of aging. A substance known as "Venetian ceruse" was made by soaking white lead in vinegar to create a paste, which was applied generously to the face, neck and chest. This was the preferred makeup of nobility and the wealthy class. Not only did this lead exposure result in lead poisoning which caused sickness, but the white lead mixture also contained sometimes deadly amounts of arsenic. Other make-shift skin whitening agents were made using items such as aluminum and tin ash, sulfur, boiled egg white and talc (Alchin). Women were also known to use leeches to bleed themselves and literally drain out their color. Women also spread raw egg whites over their faces as a sort of glaze to hide wrinkles and even their complexions (Leed). Many different dyes were used to achieve the distinct red lips and cheeks of high fashion but the most preferred dye came from vermilion, or mercuric sulfide, which like all mercury compounds is toxic.

Hairstyles also sought to emulate Queen Elizabeth I, whose red tightly curled locks represented the archetype of fashion. To achieve this women used numerous dyes (many of which were highly toxic) and bought expensive and elaborate hairpieces. Queen Elizabeth was herself rumored to have over eighty hairpieces, also called Periwigs (Alchin). Young girls and women typically kept their hair long and natural to reflect their virgin purity, pinning it up upon reaching married status (Alchin). Women would also "pluck the hairs from one to two inches above their natural hair line to make their foreheads appear higher" (Leed).

Men also became increasingly conscious of their hair-do’s. Longer hair came into style, which was curled with hot irons into loose curls held in place by wax or gum (Alchin). A beard became essential for masculinity, and could be worn in a variety of different shapes. Men went to barber shops to get their beards stiffened, starched, powdered, perfumed, waxed and even dyed.

Attitudes towards aesthetics at the time were a contradicting mix of acceptance and scorn. Although the use of cosmetics was practically ubiquitous among the upper and upper-middle classes, many moralists and clerics heavily criticized what they called "painting". They believed painting to be an attempt to alter God’s workmanship and an attempt to seduce and lead astray men of morals (Garner). In his 1583 book "Anatomie of Abuses", Puritan social reformer Phillip Stubbes warned that…
Popular Men's Hairstyles

"those who color their faces deny the Lord to be either merciful of almitie or bothe, and so consequently no God at all, for if hee could not have made them faire, then hee is not almightie, and if hee could not and would not, then is hee not a merciful God, and so every way they fall in to the sinck of offense, being ashamed of the good creation of the Lord in them…the Lord will be ashamed of them and condemn them to hell’s everlasting fire".
Play writes of the time such as Shakespeare and Webster often used the use of cosmetics as an image of women’s "fallenness" from purity and destructive power over men (Garner). Hamlet expresses his distaste for painting in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, as does the character of Lincoln in Thomas Dekker’s, The Shoemaker’s Holiday;

"I have heard of your paintings, well enough. God hath given you one face, and you make yourself another. You jig and amble, and you lisp; you nickname God’s creatures and make your wantonness your ignorance. Go to, I’ll no more on’t; it hath made me mad."-Hamlet, 3.1.143-48
"I would not have you cast an amorous eye upon so mean a project as the love of a gay, wonton, painted citizen. I know this churl, even in the height of scorn, doth hate the mixture of this blood with thine."-The Shoemakers Holiday, Scene 1 p.492

In her book, Cosmetics in Shakespearean and Renaissance Drama, author Farah Karim-Cooper explores the ways in which the use of cosmetics and the cultural attitudes towards it were both reflected by and entrenched in the theater.
She argues that an example of the impact of the cultural war over cosmetics can be seen reflected in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, in which “Shakespeare meditates upon the meanings of paintedness, representation and theatricality, while he explores political questions and anxieties” (Karim-Cooper). While play writes echoed public sentiment over painting in the context of their plays, they simultaneously spurred the public’s interest in it through the common use of cosmetics and face painting on stage, which “enraptured audiences” (Karim-Cooper).

Despite this public sentiment, men and women alike indulged in the alteration of their appearances in numbers unseen by previous era’s in England. Even while criticizing it, play writes utilized stage makeup and hair to represent different characters and men adopted all of the cosmetics of women to portray female roles, as women were not allowed to act in the theater until 1660 (Alchin). Regardless of conflicting attitudes, it is undeniable that hair and makeup became very much engrained in the lives of people in the Elizabethan era and left a lasting mark on the history of aesthetics.
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The Theatre and Stage Combat

Stage combat is the art form of enacting a fight on stage in order to create an individual experience in which the audience perceives a battle but the actors are involved with a small percentage of risk. Since the beginning of theatre combat has been interpreted on stage, from a duel with swords to a barroom brawl to a gunfight at high noon stage combat has been a large part of the on stage acting.

Elizabethan Stage Combat Techniques
In "Dueling in the Elizabethan Theatre" Louis Wright uncovers the rise in popularity of stage combat and its inherent addition to many of the period’s stage works. According to Wright’s research the spectators of the Elizabethan era were very interested in many shows of skill and violence; such spectacles include fencing, bear-baiting, and wrestling. Because of the call for action in plays playwrights began to incorporate more and more fights in their plays in order to meet the consumer demand.

Elizabethan actors would be trained as skilled swordsmen in order to perform on stage; Shakespeare himself was supposedly trained at Blackfriars by the renowned Italian swordsman Rocco Bonetti, according to Wright. As the demand for combat ready actors rose so would the amount of plays that involved combat in them, not soon after did the amount of combat in each play sky rocket itself.

"In the fragment of Robin Hood and the Knight, containing only forty lines, there are five distinct contests: a shooting match, a stone throwing match, a wrestling match, a fight in which Robin kills the knight and a battle with the sheriff’s men. The play is merely a framework for the contests." (Wright 267).
Wright states that many authors would over cater to the lust for stage combat and that "Shakespeare and his contemporaries made capital of combats whenever possible" (Wright 271).

The Sydney Stage Combat School

Wright beautifully sums up his argument and evidence in his conclusion of the essay, stating:

By emphasizing scenes of fencing, the players had an opportunity of turning to account their skill as fencers and of displaying a technique of which they were often vain. The theatre-goers throughout the Elizabethan period greedily demanded physical contests of strength and skill. With both players and public eager for stage contests, dramatists could not omit such spectacles, even though in many cases the exhibitions were extraneous, or, at best, much over-emphasized. Thus theatrical demands were responsible for a type of variety-show entertainment which strains or violates the principles of dramatic structure (Wright 275).
There are many forms of stage combat that actors train for; such forms include hand-to-hand combat, swordplay, tumbling, evasive throws (making a punch look like a punch but not make contact), and many other forms. Actors will spend years in training in order to perfect their body and technique in many forms; for example, Bruce Lee was a martial arts master of his time and spent countless hours everyday training his body in order to be able to perform as requested and because of his hard work in training Bruce Lee was able to make numerous martial arts films and a part in the the martial arts TV epic The Green Hornet.

Bruce Lee's Stage Combat in Action

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Production Plans

The Shoemaker's Holiday
By Thomas Dekker

Lindsey Perry's:
The play is set in the 1940's at the end of World War II in New York City, and the theme of debunking social hierarchies is heavily depicted in the interpretation. The stage represents both the Lower East Side working-class streets and the wealthy Upper East Side mansions and penthouses. Characters, in example Rose and Lacy, are from different ethnicities. Both Lincoln and Oatley wear suits of the same worth, Rose dresses extremely fashionably in all the latest trends and Lacy switches back and forth from working-class dress to suit.

Jared Kylstad's:
I believe, we will be able to create vastly different versions of the songs that preface the play proper. Picture the first line, through visual symbolizing, "Oh the month of May, the merry month of May" (489); to capture this line visually, our group captured bright, green images. The variations on the images will add emphasis to the delivery of the lines. Picture a wide angle shot (a common angle in noir visual style), and picture a performer slowly coming into focus, in the middle of a green field, frolicking; then, juxtapose this image with the line, "So frolic, so gay, so green!" (489). This image will enhance the viewer/spectators experience of the scene; which builds into the overall experience of the entire play. We must focus on each individual line, in order to create images within the video which will accumulate into an overall experience. If we can do this, than applying this method to the entire play will insure success.
(This is an excerpt/statement from a longer production plan.)

Kayla Ousley's:
Cliché 1980’s High School drama. Lacy, a jock, falls in love with Rose, a nerd. The leaders of both cliques (Lincoln and Oatley) disapprove so Lacy pretends to move away, only to return to school disguised as a drama kid (donning a beret and weird small sunglasses) to continue his relationship with Rose. All goes well until the quarterback tries to throw a football at the mysterious new drama kid at lunch. Lacy spins around to make a catch that could never be achieved by a mere drama kid, thus revealing to all his true identity as a jock. A food fight threatens to emerge until the most popular guy in the school (representing th e King) steps out of the shadows and puts out his cigarette to make a moving speech about the insignificance of cliques. Everyone is happy.

Angie Briscoe's:
My vision for The Shoemaker’s Holiday took place during WWII. The class system would be represented by Enlisted and Officer ranks in the military. In the end, the King would be represented by a General who would meritoriously promote Rose’s father to the rank of Warrant Officer in order to make her an Officers daughter (and appropriate for Lacy, an Officer, to marry). The shoemakers would be represented by the factory workers of the era, working hard to provide combat boots, and other war materials for the military.

Our Music Video


Works Cited

Alchin, Linda. "Elizabethan Era".

Bevington, David. Maus, Katharine, Eisaman. "General Introduction: Performance and Print." English Renaissance Drama. Eds. Bevington. Engle. Maus. Rasmussen. New York: Norton, 2002.

Chourmouziadou, K. Kang, J. "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theatres." School of Architecture, University of Sheffield Press:
UK, 2006.

"Costumes." Shakespeare's World and Work. Ed. John F. Andrews. 2001. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. December 2005. 5 October 2008.

Dekker, Thomas. The Shoemaker’s Holiday. English Renaissance Drama. Eds. Bevington. Engle. Maus. Rasmussen. New York: Norton, 2002.

“Elizabethan Music.” Elizabethan Era. Ed. Linda Alchin. Update Unknown. 14 September 2008. <>

Garner, Shirley Nelson. "Let Her Paint an Inch Thick: Painted Ladies in Renaissance Drama and Society." Renaissance Drama. Ed. Mary Beth Rose. Northwestern University Press,1990.123-40.

Gassner, John. Medieval And Tudor Drama. New York: Applause, 1987.

Johnson, Bruce. Popular Music. "Hamlet: Voice, Music, Sound." Cambridge University Press. 2005. United Kingdom. 257-267.

Karim-Cooper, Farah. Cosmetics in Shakespearean and Renaissance Drama. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

King, Viola. “Elizabethan Music.” Socyberty. 8 June 2008. 14 September 2008. <>

Leed, Drea. "Elizabethan Make-Up 101".

“Music in the Elizabethan Era.” Wikipedia. 1 September 2008. 14 September 2008.>

Phillips, Kim M. "Masculinity and the Medieval English Sumptuary Laws." Genderd & History 19.1 (2007):22-42. Historical Abstracts. EBSCO. San Diego State Library, San Diego, CA. 30 Sept. 2008

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine.

 New York: St. Martin's, 1998.

Stubbes, Philip. The Anatomie of Abuses. 1583.

Wright, Louis B. "Stage Duelling in the Elizabethban Theatre." The Modern Language Review, Vol. 22 No. 3 (July 1927) pp. 265-275 Modern Humanities Research Association SDSU Library, San Diego, CA. 26 September 2008