A Walk
Through Stage
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Queen ElizaHouse, M.D
"'Tis not Lupus"'

We will be exploring the journey across the dramatic experience of the Elizabeathen and Jacobean era of theatre. Our main focus will be on the following areas of the dramatic experience: Costumes, stage and sets, fighting techniques and weaponry, acting techniques, and music. We will present to you individual excerpts from our areas of expertise along with detailed information as to what our areas of concentration include, as you may also see we've jam packed our wiki with fun photos and videos for your pleasure; do enjoy
Makeup: Sarah Ellis
Costumes: Angelica Duenas
Stage Fights and Tehcniques: Carlos KellyElizabethan Stage Setting: Dylan Yuzbick
Acting Techniques: Pilar Navarro
Music: Adam Marley


Elizabethan Makeupby Sarah Ellis

The Elizabethan Painted Face

The make up used in the Elizabethan days has changed drastically from what actors use today. As Drea Leed describes, the look that was desired then was an extremely fair complexion, a small rosy mouth, a straight and narrow nose, wide-set bright eyes, and narrow arched eyebrows. This look can be seen on Queen Elizabeth I, who was the ideal beauty of the time. (Leed)

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Queen Elizabeth I was considered the pinnacle of female beauty.
Women of the times used several different, and often poisonous materials to achieve this look. Ceruse was used to whiten the complexion. It consisted of white lead and vinegar. Lead is a toxic substance that can cause death. Fucus (face paint) was used for cheeks and lips. It was often made from madder, cochineal, and ochre-based compounds. Vermillion was commonly used as blush and lip color as well. Vermillion is a mercuric sulfide. (Leed)
Make up in the theater has changed quite a bit. The same basic look is desired to keep with the spirit and context of Elizabethan plays, but application is quite different.
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Fucus (a brown algae) was used for cheeks and lips.

Makeup in the Theater

Some of the ways in which the actors went about applying makeup for the stage was quite similar to the ways in which the women of the time applied their cosmetics of choice. However, when it came to men portraying women on the stage, it was often necessary to layer on even more makeup to achieve the desired effect. There are accounts of theaters paying for paints to create sets with, and it is very possible that "the players may have applied this very paint on to their faces (since the pigment would have been composed of the same materials)." (Karim-Cooper 137). Sometimes the uses of cosmetics seemed to go even deeper than the actors' skin, as Karim-Cooper points out, when she draws a connection in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, between the lead-based face paint used for cosmetics and a lead casket shown in the play. (Karim-Cooper 162). Makeup was also used to display the intentions of the characters, such as the overly painted face of Iago in Shakespeare's Hamlet, which "may very well have his own face painted to highlight his role as a cosmetic signifier, or an epitome of seductive deception" (Karim-Cooper 166).


Modern Stage Makeup

As described in Roy Mitchell's Shakespeare for Community Players, stage make up is an important step in theater in order to accentuate the facial emotions of your character. It is best if it is applied onto a clean face free of dirt and oil, and around 60 minutes before the production in order to avoid irritation. First you should select a foundation that is the same or very similar to your actual skin color. This should be blended into your skin using a makeup sponge. If your character has other skin showing, such as the neck and chest area, you should also blend the foundation there as well.
"After foundation, the face needs to be sculpted with highlights and lowlights. Select a foundation that is a couple of shades darker than your skin and blend that into the hollows of your cheeks and the sides of the nose. Then using a lighter than normal shade, blend that into the bridge of the nose and the cheekbones." (Mitchell 98)
After these steps, set the makeup with a face powder. Makeup pertaining to the character can then be applied. For women characters this typically includes blush, eye makeup and mascara, and lipstick. Depending on the size of the theater, you will need to use more or less makeup. "Less makeup is more appropriate for a smaller theater, as more is better for a larger audience." (Mitchell 99)
There are several tricks to enhancing cer tain features that are important to the character, such as using a yellow eye shadow to create the effect of larger eyes, and using a black eyeliner to create the illusion of smaller eyes. (Mitchell 101)
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Dressing the Partby Angelica Duenas

The Elizabethan and Jacobean period was an Era in which social structure ruled society. In order to maintain social structure people were set apart by what they wore, and how elaborate their attire was. Color, texture and fabric in your clothing emphasized your social position. According to Jean MacIntyre, stage costumes showed its wearers sex, rank, occupation and often his age and marital status (13). The theater was a place where poor lower class individuals were able to dress and portray high nobility. Channing Lithicum states that "costumes were elaborate to make up for the bare stage and lack of props" (27). Most theaters because of money issues did not have a wide variety of costumes from different periods. Lithicum also states that costumes accounted for a majority of companies' expenses especially their maintenance (58). Because of the lack of consistency you might have seen people in a play wearing costumes from different periods. You may have seen a female character dressed in medieval attire and a man dressed in Roman togas. The costumes were elaborate, but not historically authentic. Consistency was not of importance, what was important was portraying the characters status. Colors and material were what defined a characters social status. In various ways, certain colors had certain significances. According to Linthicum, the color purple, red and white signify high class and high social standings, and colors like brown, gray, and black, emphasized poverty and dispair (12). This emphasized the difference between the actor himself, who would be poor and not noble, and the rich character he was portraying.

Royalty & Nobility
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Aristocracy

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Gentry
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Citizens
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Peasants
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Indingent
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Costumes in the Drama of Shakespeare and his Contemporaries is a book by M. Channing Linthicum, it was published in 1972 by Hacker Art Books. The book focuses on theater costumes and their importance and relevance in the Elizabethan period. Costumes were a big part of the Elizabethan period. Attire was how a person identified themselves. If you were of noble class your dress was much different from those of peasants and lower class. Color and texture were the main sources of differentiating class status. Linthicum explains how certain meanings were associated with color. For instance “red with blood, hence power... yellow with the sun, hence warmth and fruitfulness...green with spring, hence youth...brown with winter, hence despair... white with purity...and black with death, hence gloom and woe” (p15). The book explains how the colors were used and how they represented class status. She also goes into detail about what consisted of a women’s dress and a man’s attire. Both men and women’s attire consisted of many different parts put together to create one full costume.



The Fighting Sceneby Carlos Kelly


This is an example of what a fight scene would have looked like back then: the fight involves several sword fighting, plus grabbing and throwing techniques as well; this is an example of mock fighting that allows the actors to really involve the audience in the scene and as you can see the fight is some what choreographed. You can tell from the cues that the actors follow; they at sometimes wait for one another to clearly be out of harms way or to be ready for the next battle to take place, this is evident mid way through the video when one of the swordsmen throws the sword at the other and it sticks into the stage setting.

What goes on during stage fighting? Well you may be surprised to know that it's a cooperative effort between the actors that are fighting. There are four steps to a successful stage fight. They are: Eye contact, preparation, reaction, and then action.
Eye contact is crucial because it helps telegraph the actors attacks and is key to the safety of the actors involved. For example two actors will be able to read each others cues and communicate their actions better through strong eye contact. Preparation involves selling your moves to the audience while also selling it to your actors. For example, the wind up punch in cartoons, everyone knows that the punch is coming. In this case the actors prepare a sword attack by "winding it up." It's all about showing the cue, but still maintaining the reality of the fight. Reaction makes the fight scene safe to continue as planned. The attacker prepares for the attack while the victim prepares for it. This allows for smooth choreography to take place while maintaining the safety of everyone. Last of all is action, this is all about the impression of the fighters involved. The movements should be crisp and simple to help with the affect of portraying a real fight scene. Exaggerated motions can also help to add affect, for example, a weaker fighter will have late reactions, or it will look like that to the audience.

Stage Fighting Techniques:
One form of technique that was very popular during the Elizabethan era was the Comedic combat style. For example, when the attacker swipes his sword towards the victim’s feet instead of jumping out of the way or making an over dramatic escape, the actor can lift his foot as if mocking the attacker. So while the attacker is vehemently trying to do harm the other actor is laughing at danger and showing the crowd he is not impressed by the attacker’s swordplay and/or anger. Actors can also delay their responses during a fight scene, which allows time for double takes to take place; doing this, can turn a lame gag into something that is hilarious. Sometimes actors can reverse their roles; meaning that an actor playing a serious role can do something that would not pertain to his characters personality in order to achieve comedic effect. Another way that comedy was induced during fight scenes was by using props in order toe lengthen the fight. For example, chairs, chandeliers, and stools could be used to block the attackers path and prolonging the fight for him, evoking frustration in the attacker. The most used technique for comedic stage fights is the "groucho stab," this is when an actor bows and his sword (as he bows) stabs an actor behind him in the butt.

Stance
A balanced position involves the feet being spread apart and approx. 24 inches apart with a slight bend at the knees.

Grip
For **lighter weapons** the thumb should be lying straight on top of the handle with index finger underneath the handle. For **heavier weapons** there should be a full grip of the sword with the thumb and fingers wrapped around the sword.

Parry Positioning
This is the act of positioning a sword and body in attack form.

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Parrying

Unarmed techniques
In unarmed fights the same four step process applies to the actors involved. The fight scenes are all about completing the illusion of a real fight. The most common of unarmed technique is the use of knaps, where the actors use their bodies to make the noise of a connecting punch or kick, one of them is called an aggressor Knap, this is when the aggressor controls the sound of the punch either by slapping his/her own body or hands as the punch "connects" with the victim. Another technique used, but for kicks, is kicking the opposing actor in the groin; here the attacker kicks the other actor in the side of the leg, which allows for the illusion of a real kick to the groin to be produced.

Some Older Tid Bits:

To create an illusion of sparks when swords were colliding in fights, flints were added to blades.
Fight choreographies were handed down to acting companies to promote safety and to learn choreographies more quickly. The one thing that was sacrificed in this attempt at efficiency was creativity. Plays could seem to have redundant fight scenes, and the play could risk losing it's appeal during these scenes.




Elizabethan Stage:
A Wonderful Space of Infinite Possibility by Dylan Yuzbick

For all of the history created by theatre itself, be it necessary to dedicate that history to the presence of a stage; a podium for playwrights to express their talents, a pedestal for actors and actresses to showcase their abilities, and a space for community involvement within the parameters of laughter and limitless entertainment. The Elizabethan stage was one that did wonders for the world of theatre at that time as well as one that still does wonders for theatre today. The Elizabethan stage is one that can be the so-called ‘blank slate’ of all stages in theatre for it boundaries were boundary-free. As said in J.L. Styan’s work titled, “The English Stage: A history of drama and performance,” the “bare Elizabethan stage was an ideal vehicle for the promotion of a different kind of drama” giving the Elizabethan actor a great sense of comfort on an open stage, “playing almost in the round and thrust into the world of the audience” (Styan 98). The presence of the stage itself in this way furthermore gave way to what we know of the stage today; a limitless platform of possibility. The Elizabethan stage was one with not many features but one of bare infinite possibility. Moreover, David Bevington writes in his anthology titled, “English Renaissance Drama” that this ‘blank slate’ in which there was “the lack of scenery” was “to minimize the importance of ‘unity of place,’ the classical dramatic convention that the action of the play be set in a single location” (Bevington liii). Given that understanding, it is necessary to say that the Elizabethan stage was one with unlimited interchangeability and diversity. This stage was not only uniquely intricate in that fact, but furthermore in that at any one time, the complete setting on the stage could change with the addition or change of any one thing. Styan writes that, “Place and time remained unimportant until the one or the other was called for… done by the specific appearance of a character whose location was known, by an indicative prop (a throne, a tomb) set on the stage” (Styan 98). The adaptability of the Elizabethan stage was up close and personal for the actors/actresses and for the audience.


Characteristics of Elizabethan TheatreThe characteristics of any typical Elizabethan stage setting at the time would contain if not all, most of the following characteristics… We’ll use the characteristics of Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre to feel out what a typical, quite possibly the Elizabethan theatre of all time, or Elizabethan ones alike, felt like.
-The stage was usually a large rectangular platform four or five feet above ground level. Behind this rectangular space of what was known as the actual stage floor there was a always a wall with a space behind where actors could change costumes, prepare future scenes, and wait for their entrance cues. (Bevington xlix)
-Above the wall behind the stage floor there was typically a balcony where actors could perform scenes as extensions of elevated stage floor performance. (Bevington xlix)
-On the stage itself there was always a trap-door which could supply instant scene changes at any particular time. (Bevington xlix)
-Sets of pillars (highlighted in red in the image below) usually captured some stage space. These provided stage and theatre support as well as even a possible hiding shield for characters playing the particular part.
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The Anatomy of Elizabethan Theatre

-Three levels, one was already mentioned, formed the back drop to the stage, each being a place where actors could perform.
-Along the back drop to the stage, also providing some stage space usage were often sets of bay windows where actors could perform. (Bernheimer 17)
-There were often entrance doors in the middle of the back drop to the stage and/or to the sides of the stage where actors could enter and exit and where, as mentioned, anything could be added to or taken from the stage and any moment during the play. These flanking doors allowed for the great adaptability and interchangeability of the Elizabethan stage. (Bernheimer 21)
-On or around the stage there were usually no curtains, just open space. (Bernheimer 21)
-There was often an inner stage, sometimes a cubicle formed by closing doors in the middle of the stage’s backdrop space. (Bernheimer 21)
-On the upper levels, also known as alternate stages there were often spaces for ‘battlements’ and platforms with more doors with access made possible by staircases behind the stage wall or sometimes in front of the stage wall in the form of circular staircases.
*In the following image, although quite small, many, if not each of the aspect of Elizabethan theatre mentioned above can be seen.
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Typical Elizabethan Theatre


In the following video provided many of the characteristics of the Elizabethan Theatre can be seen in a modern day interpretation.





Acting Techniquesby Pilar Navarro
“Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue: but if you mouth it, as many of your players do, I had as lief the town-crier spoke my lines. Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand, thus, but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say, the whirlwind of passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance that may give it smoothness. O, it offends me to the soul to hear a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings, who for the most part are capable of nothing but inexplicable dumbshows and noise: I would have such a fellow whipped for o'erdoing Termagant; it out-herods Herod: pray you, avoid it...”
-Hamlet’s advice to the players (Hamlet, ACT III SCENE II)
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A scene from "The Shoemaker's Holiday" (Ohio State University, 2002)

Hamlet’s famous monologue to the players provides some information to the little evidence available to scholars on the actual acting techniques utilized in the period of Elizabethan/Jacobean Theater. From this monologue, it can be inferred that acting during this time was conventionally loud and overdone with exaggerated gestures. Even more evidence for these methods of melodramatic acting by considering the preparation time, the set up of the performance, the use of boy players and the arguments scholars provide to whether acting was “natural” or “formal”.

Actors had little rehearsal time with new plays being constantly produced, closed, and revived. Paper was a luxury and printing was expensive, making scripts as they are modernly known to be nonexistent. Instead, actors were given "cue scripts” which only provided their lines and the three lines before them. No full scripts and little rehearsal time led to acting that could be described as shallow, since actors could not delve deeply into their characters psyches or have full context of the play in which to base their motives (Beaupre). According to Andrew Gurr, Actors had even more difficulty adding depth to their performances when their talent had to be stretched to fill multiple roles in one play. Gurr also states that some theater's often resorted to typecasting, meaning when actors are specifically chosen to represent the same type of role or personality trait in each play. Typecasting today is met with disapproval; however in Elizabethan/Jacobean Theater, it was key to achieve some elements of characterization that would otherwise be lost to the little preparation available.
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Rose and Lacey

The set up of the theater also affected the characteristics of acting. The poorer attendees (also known as groundlings) were made to stand in front of the stage, many times blocking others’ view. Theater audiences were expected to be rowdy and rambunctious while eating, drinking and even engaging in sexual encounters, all which was distracting to the performance. To combat a noisy audience with an obstructed view, actors engaged in "loud speaking"; reciting their lines clearly and robustly with exaggerated gestures to highlight their speech. The lack of subtlety ensured that the audience could follow along and understand the play over the distractions from the groundlings (Beaupre).

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Edward Kynaston: one of the last boy players (wikipedia)

It was socially unacceptable for women to act, so troupes of boy players were utilized in their place. Prepubescent boys (usually recruited from choirs) were apprenticed to adult actors and with their feminine features and high pitched voices, performed the roles of female characters. Once their voices “broke”, they would transition into playing regular adult roles. These boys were academically trained meaning that they had proper speech and acted specifically to how they were taught and not specific to the character. Their training, along with the knowledge that the female characters were in fact male, took away from the realism of their performances (Wikipedia).

Alfred Harbage's article "Elizabethan Acting", describes the discussion between scholars to the exact techniques employed by actors. With little factual evidence available, scholars remain in disagreement over whether acting was “formal” or “natural”. Proponents of formal acting, argue that most playwrights wanted actors to merely act as mouthpieces for their words. They were objective, direct and employed little personality, preferring that the words of the play speak for itself. Others point to Shakespeare’s advice to actors, like the above monologue in Hamlet, as an example that acting was “natural”. Natural acting meant that actors were given more freedom in presenting their character. They could employ realistic movements and act subjectively to their character. Natural acting also meant that there would be a heavier reliance on feelings and emotion. Harbage concludes that although natural acting would take preference, notations from playwrights indicate that each writer that both styles were utilized by different writers.

Whichever method employed, it is known that actors also had to sing, dance, play music, fence and perform acrobatic stunts as it pertained to the play (Gurr). Since theater was one of the few modes of entertainment available, with many spending their entire work’s wages to attend, the actor’s main responsibility was to entertain and enthrall the demanding audience.

This video is a skit with Rowan Atkinson illustrating the wild gestures of typical Shakespearean character.



Music in English Renaissance Theater by Adam Marley
Queen Elizabeth I playing a lute
Queen Elizabeth I playing a lute

As much as the English Renaissance was a revolution for literature and theater, new and exciting advances in music were brought about. In the 1470s, music began being printed by use of a printing press. This development changed the way that music was able to spread and be performed. The English musical schools flourished between 1588 to 1627. The monarchs of England in the day, inclulding Henry the VIII, Edward the IV, Mary, and Elizabeth were all considered proficient musicians and composers, which shows just how important music was to the culture. The most important and famous of these being the English Madrigal. The English madrigals were a cappella and thus could be sung by the actors or a separate group on stage, and we see many plays from those times with musical interludes which would take advantage of this tradition (Such as the beginning of our play, the Shoemaker's Holiday). Among the most used musical instruments of the day was the virginal, a small piano-like instrument that made soft sounding, almost mandolin-like noises. It was not a subtle instrument, and not only was difficult to play, but was rather obnoxious by all accounts as well. However, it still retained a degree of popularity that defies common sense.

The most popular instrument of the day was the Lute, an instrument which has its origins as far back as the 6th century from Spain but which has retained a degree of popularity even to today. Shakespeare was very fond of the lute, and often included references to the instrument in his plays. The Taming of the Shrew includes a scene centering around a character disguising himself as a
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The Lute was pretty metal
music teacher to attempt to get closer to the woman of his affections and in the play he attempts to play the instrument only to spend a comedic amount of time tuning the instrument (Lutes were famously hard to tune). The lute also accompanied singers in many cases, with a lute player plucking at the strings while a chorus would sing along. A lute player could also be depended to entertain the audience in between acts and scenes when preparation on stage was needed, or to fill the stage with background noise accompaniment when appropriate.

Composers were held in quite high esteem in English culture, however it's somewhat paradoxical that the musicians themselves were usually not held in a good light. Shakespeare often characterized the minstrels of his plays were at best fellows that existed somewhat at the border of civilized society and at worst absolute knaves. This perhaps stems from the fact that many musicians were in fact wanderers who performed their skill from town to town and thus bore all the stigma that vagabonds do in any society.

Here are a few examples of lute songs written at the verge of the 1600s.
What If I Never Speed? - John Dowland
Browning - Elway Bevin
April is in my Mistress' Face - Thomas Morley


Production Plans
My idea for the play The Shoemaker's Holiday is to set it in the early twenties. The scene would be comical, as it would be a silent movie type that is going to get doubled. The actors would be in Charlie Chaplin attire and other 1920's popular dress. The scene would also be in black and white.
Angelica Duenas

My idea for the play The Shoemake'rs Holiday is set in the mid 19th century. It would be set in New York, and the main idea would be the poor Irish immigrant shoe makers vs the wealthy land owning Americans. In my take their is more fighting and violence when it comes to the families of Rose and Lacy.
Carlos Kelly

To better portray the themes present in The Shoemaker's Holiday, my plan would not have any discernible time period or setting. Scenery, props and costumes would stay relatively plain with the exception of elaborately constructed ornate shoes that would catch the lighting. Actors would make up for their sparse surroundings by employing a flamboyant and exaggerated performance that creates distinction between their characters. Ideally, the play would be performed on a revolving stage with different sets to show the connection between the social classes.
Pilar Navarro

Given the dramatic and comedic ways in which the play itself is seen today, how Thomas Dekker if fact produced and wrote it, I think an interesting and very possible production of the play could take place in the setting of/and between two modern day corporate film production offices. In this plot, emphasis would be put on the competitive rivalries between these two major film production companies and great humor would be emphasized given the types of beings that make up both companies in all of the office dramas that seem to occur in producing film media. In this production, the characters Rowland Lacy and his uncle The Earl of Lincoln would represent the long familial ownership of Paramount Pictures. On the other hand, Lacy’s love Rose and her father Sir Roger Oatley would represent the long familial ownership of 20th Century Fox. In this contrast, Lacy’s love for Rose and her likewise love for him would create great drama within the two companies adding to the drama that already lingers all time between the two biggest film production companies in the business. Furthermore, given the characters situations and personal histories, major emphasis would also take place to and in the minds of the audience, who having seen the elaborately professional appearances of the characters beforehand, would be able to see the trickery that the characters plot to make ends meet and their wishes come true regarding the future of their family’s companies and their future relationships with one another. In all, I feel that such a production of Dekker’s play The Shoemaker’s Holiday, played out in the midst of two corporate film production offices, could easily be pulled off given the many ‘rival-ric’ and dramatic intercourses film production companies have, particularly the two largest, Paramount and 20th Century Fox.
Dylan Yuzbick

For my production plan I decided to just go all out. I would set it in the future in a dystopian setting where Earth has been abandoned by people and only Android Shoemakers are left behind to pick up the mess left by humanity. There, the Androids find they are capable of human emotion and love and carry out their little dramas. The acting would be purposely stiff and mechanical, although when "lovers" meet, the androids would loosen up and begin to display genuine emotion. There would be only 2 sets, one for inside, which would be 3 plain white stainless walls positioned around the actors which would stimulate the sterileness of the environment, one for outside, which when you take away the walls would expose the rest of the set which would be cluttered with trash and smoke and things would just look dirty and dark.
Adam Marley

My production plan for Thomas Dekker's The Shoemaker's Holiday was to set it in the 1950's. The costuming would reflect the time period with that of poodle skirts and preppy attire such as varsity jackets for the upper class, and "greaser" style costuming for the lower class. I also thought it would be very interesting to add in some sort of racial tension between the characters in order to update the issues of class found throughout the play. Shooting it in this style would make the play more easily relatable to modern audiences. Sarah Ellis



Our Production of scene 17: The Shoemakers Holiday



Works Cited
Beaupre, Walter J. "As You Like It - As Shakespeare Liked It." London Theatre Guide Online. 1 September 1997. Londontheatre.co.uk. 20 October 2008. <http://www.londontheatre.co.uk/londontheatre/reviews/eventsandstories/asyoulikeitglobe97.htm>.

Bernheimer, Richard. "Another Globe Theatre." Shakespeare Quarterly 9.1 (1958): 19- 29. JStor. SDSU. 26 Sep. 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2867176>.
Bevington, David. English Renaissance Drama. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002.
"Boy Player." Wikipedia. 10 November 2008. Wikipedia.org. 6 October 2008. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boy_player>

Elson, Louis Charles. Shakespeare in Music. University of Michigan, L.C. Page & Co., 1900.

"English Madrigal School" . Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2, December 2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Madrigal_School

Gurr, Andrew. The Shakespearean Stage 1574-1642. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Harbage, Alfred. "Elizabethan Acting." PMLA Vol. 54 No. 3 (September 1939): 685-708.

Hobbs, William. Stage Fight: Swords, firearms, fisticuffs and slapstick
New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1967.

Karim-Cooper , Farah. Cosmetics in Shakespearean and Renaissance Drama. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Lane, Richard. Swashbuckling
New York: Limelight Editions, 1999.

Leed, Drea. "Elizabethan Make-Up 101." Renaissance Central. 2000. 13 November 2008. <http://www.rencentral.com/jul_aug_vol1/makeup101.shtml>

Linthicum, Channing M. Costume in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries.
Hacker Art Books Inc., NY. 1992.

MacIntyre, Jean. Costumes and Scripts in the Elizabethan Theatres.
The University of Alberta Press. British Colombia. 1992.

Mitchell, Roy. Shakespeare for Community Players. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co, 1919.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. George Pierce Baker.

 The Macmillan Company, 1913.
Styan, J.L. The English Stage: A history of drama and stage. New York: Press Syndicate, 1996.