"A mask of gold hides all deformities"

- Thomas Dekker


Dekker's "The Shoemaker's Holiday" Preformed on Stage.
This is a wiki collaboration between Turiana Guiland, Liz Nguyen, Jacquelyn Flaming, Judy Viskoe, and Ken Lilly.
We are proud to present our "Gentle Craft" for your educational learning.

Hair and Makeup in the Elizabethan Age - Turiana Guiland
Regardless of the era, makeup and hair has always played an influential part in social hierarchies. The better looking people who could afford the various beauty products controlled the top tiers of society while those with less money inhabited the lesser tiers. Both in real life and on the stage, beauty dictated your social standings and illuminated your wealth. For both men and women, the “right” style of hair and make-up could illustrate to society their aristocratic class. Women utilized several layers of make-up to conceal aging and disease while their hair emulated the one woman with the greatest power: Queen Elizabeth the First. Men, on the other hand, found their social strength in the styles of their hair and beards

Queen Elizabeth the First

For the noble class, pale skin signifies wealth and sheer delicacy. In keeping with the trend, and attempting to mask various facial irregularities like pot marks, scars, disease and wrinkles, women often painted their faces, neck, and bosoms white with foundations made of vinegar and lead (Ross). Due to the concentration of lead, however, the concoction proved to be more more harmful than helpful. In some instances, egg white was used to create a “glaze” or sheen over the white paint (Ross). On top of that base, women used rouge for their cheeks and lips and kohl to darken the eyelashes. It was also popular to over-pluck eyebrows and the front hairline to create a more even forehead and complexion (Ross).

Equally important for Elizabethan women were their hairstyles. Imitating the style of Queen Elizabeth I, red and blond curly hair became fashionable and desirable. To create the color, women used various herbal powders like cumin or saffron mixed with oil (del Prado). Following the vogue of copying the Queen, two main hairstyles emerged and remain high in society. One was called the “padded” style, which “had to be done with two pieces called ‘rats’-by its resemblance with those animals-, and framed the face with a heart-shaped form” (del Prado). The other was aptly named the “frizzed” because it was simply curly hair in a rather casual style. Head pieces like hairnets, hats, combs, and jeweled pins were also an important aspect of Elizabethan hair.

Sir Walter Raleigh


Fashion was not just important to women of the Elizabethan era. Men were also cared about their appearances, and in some instances, were even more elaborately dressed than the women. Though men did not desire their hair to be a specific shade, specific lengths were important. Generally speaking, men’s hair tended to be cut close to the head, but as time progressed, the length increased. These hairstyles were usually brushed back and held in place with wax or starch. Men’s facial hair and beards were also indicative of their social standings. “The beards could be cut in various styles including pointed, square, round, or oblong,” (del Prado) and while the shapes of the beards changed throughout time, they were commonly kept long and styled with starch. When men lost their hair, they relied on wigs to maintain their coif aristocracy. These wigs were a symbol of wealth and power and were usually produced in two shades: blond/yellow and white. Though generally utilized by men, wigs were not limited to the gender. When lice began to infest their hair, it was common for both men and women to shave their heads and wear wigs.

The Life of An Elizabethan Actor
by: Jacquelyn Flaming

The Elizabethan Era was a turbulent period characterized by changes in political power and the replacement of the church. Prior to this time, the vast masses comprising the lower class of society were trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty and injustice and sought to find avenues of escape and enjoyment through the theater. Through dramatic and comedic plays, people forgot their dismal situations, and eventually began to seek change in their lives. While the audience members of play productions were able to relax and take pleasure during the production, actors struggled to meet the demands of the crowd and survive off of their meager wages. The overall lifestyle of an actor was poor and was constantly bombarded with the changing government; it can only be summarized by constant personal and public displays of adaptation. Perhaps this is best represented through the self-expression and public display of cross-dressing seen through the actors of the Elizabethan Era. These changes of dress and mannerisms were widely acknowledged by the theatric society because it was deemed acceptable to dress and act differently to embody one's profession.

Class Status:
While many may assume that actors during the Elizabethan Era were popular and well respected, the exact opposite true. Actors were not trusted, and often referred to as “vagabonds” throughout the streets of London (Bellinger 1927). Nobility and royalty alike were so concerned by the presence of actors, that laws demanding actual acting credentials
Actors were often shunned by society
were implemented to insure constant control over the actors and the play. These wealthy and powerful individuals went as far as to censor certain plays to maker sure the content was politically and religiously free.
Actors were forced to live a life of traveling and wandering from village to town in search of work and food. These individuals were constantly dodging
and desperately trying to adhere to the newly created and enacted governmental laws, which placed restraints and requirements on all elements of theater (www.elizabethan-era.org). The struggle to find a theater or production company willing to hire was never ending, and it was made even more difficult by political conflicts (www.elizabethan-era.org). Those actors who were able to survive this constant fluctuation and battle were able to act out dramatic masterpieces by authors like Shakespeare and Dekker.

Actors Against the Elements:
The first theaters were amphitheaters; respectfully built to honor the great classical plays that emerged from Greece and Rome. These theaters were open air, and built to accommodate thousands of audience members (Bellinger 1927). While this format is exceptional for generating money, it was extremely challenging for the actors. Actors were forced to shout their lines and over dramatize their nonverbal communication to help the audience follow the plot of the play. This feat was not easy to over come, for most used the theater as a time for drinking, fighting, and carousing
The Actor's Competition
(www.elizabethan-era.org). The performers not only had to overcome the obnoxious and rowdy audience, they also had to contend with the weather as well. Torrential rain, thick fog, freezing snow, and extreme heat were just some of the factors these men had to overcome in order to act out a play.
When Playhouses were built, this outlet of theater became very popular by the upper middle class and aristocracy. Here, plays could be preformed to a smaller audience, without the intrusion of the weather, and without the cacophony of noise that was present in the larger amphitheaters (www.elizabthean-era.org).

Men Acting as Women:
Women were not legally allowed to perform until a law was passed in 1660 (Bellinger 1927). Thus, young boys and smaller framed men were forced into these female roles out of necessity. However, large quantities of white make-up and costuming were needed to convince the audience that these men were women. While their efforts were successful in tricking the audience, the personal cost to the actors was severe. The make-up used was lead based and highly toxic, therefore the vast majorities of these boys were constantly sick, had terrible skin ailments, and were accepted only on stage because of their unsightly appearance (Ross 2008).
Furthermore, the male actors needed to complete their transformation through elaborate female costumes. While these methods were extremely successful in creating a believable ambiance throughout the play, a new form of self- expression began to flower. This idea of self-expression through dress was not new to this society, but the concept of cross-gender dressing was (Smith 2008). It was almost unheard of for men to dress in clothing so similar to that of the females at the time. Likewise, few women dared to break the societal norms of fashion and dress in anything reminiscent of male clothing.

Cross- Dressing in the Elizabethan Era:
Because men had to convince the entire audience through dress and skilled acting techniques that they were women, a shift in traditional thinking occurred. Love scenes, romantic dialogues, and scenes of cuckoldry were imperative to almost all plays during the Elizabethan Era. Without the constant cross-dressing of boys and smaller framed men, these plays would have not been believable or successful (Varholy 2008). But, with the mastering of feminine
Frilly Dress
these plays would have not been believable or successful (Varholy 2008). But, with the mastering of feminine behavior came an influx of problems in English society. Problems such as homosexuality, openly cross- dressing in society, and marital scandal became more prevalent. These play productions only served enhance these societal problems as well as the problems of the government through their usage of satire, comedic dialogue, and flashy costumes (Smith 2008).

The importance of clothing and style of dress was easily depicted in the countless productions of English drama. Actors and audience members alike used their outfits as an outlet of self-expression during a turbulent time of political and religious changes. The idea of cross-dressing serves to represent the whole Elizabethan era (Varholy 2008). Audience members chose to represent their religious beliefs, martial status, and even their political alliances through their choice of styles, materials, and colors of their dress. Actors were perceptive of these conscious actions and chose to silently tease society through incorporating and mixing specific styles of dress and contrasting them with individuals of lower or higher class. The usage of clothing served to grant people the opportunity to either momentarily change their identity or embrace their individuality.

Famous Elizabethan Actors:
-Edward Alleyn (1566 - 1626): Was a prominent figure in Elizabethan Theather, he is not only well known for his performances on stage, but also for founding Dulwitch College and Alleyn’s School, Although he was a very well known actor, he was only able to create these schools with this inheritance and marriage to multiple women with larger dowries. However, he was appreciated and requested by both Queen Elizabeth and King James I during his career. (www.wikipedia.com/elizabethanactors)
-Richard Burbage (1567 - 1619): Was well known as a “Shakespeare and Johnson star” during his acting career. He was born into an extremely poor family and sought to escape the life of a peasant by becoming a professional, traveling actor. He is said to have acted in the vast majority of popular plays during his time, but he and his brother are remembered for The Black Friar Theater as well as the construction of the Globe Theater.(www.wikipedia.com/elizabethanactors.com)
Kempe Dancing The Jig

-William Kempe (1560 - 1603): Was a well known English comedic actor and dancer. His dancing style can be described as “jigs,” and were short comedic dances that
served to help the audience to better understand the play’s plot. He is best known for being one of Shakespeare’s original actors and is best known for his roles as Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing and Peter in Romeo and Juliet. While these roles are substantial, there is almost no further information about his historical life. (www.wikipedia.com/elizabethanactors)
-Joseph Taylor (1586 - 1652):
Was the successor of Richard Burbage who is associated with the King’s Men (an acting company). Later in his life, he was to become a leader of the King’s Men and even own shares in the Old Globe Theater. He is considered to be one of the most important actors in the later Jacobean era and is credited with acting in all of Shakespeare’s plays as well as many other prominent playwrights’ work. Taylor truly lived the life of an Elizabethan actor; he was imprisoned for performing, traveled frequently looking for work, and struggled to overcome the changing politics during his lifetime. (www.wikipedia.com/elizabethanactors)

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Judy Viskoe's section:

Elizabethan Music

Music in the Elizabethan era was held of enormous importance. With the absence of TV or other modern day entertainment pur
The lute
The lute
poses, many relied on the art of music. It is true that we have music now days, but we perform it in an entirely different matter. While we rely on radio, CD's, and TV to listen to music, in the Elizabethan era all music was preformed live, and usually in front of an audience. There were no pre-taped recordings or sound edits, the only preparation these artists had was sheet music and practice. Every aspect of a song that they wanted to create relied on having another human being there to perform, rather than a pre-taped clip of music that we can add in with a touch of a button. Music could be used as a major complement to a theatrical piece, or a solo act wanted by royalty, and it is well known that many of the Tudor rulers were big fans of music and theatrics.
Elizabeth playing the lute

Music was held to a very high standard in the Elizabethan period. In today's era it is considered a gift or a unique quality to be able to sing; however in the Elizabethan era a man would not be considered a gentleman unless he knew how to sing decently. Also added to this requirement was the ability to dance and play an instrument. Queen Elizabeth herself was able to play the lute and virginal (and was also very encouraging to other artists).

In relation to the home and family night, music was an activity that usually took place every night in the home, around the dinner table. We might today feel very awkward about this but in the Elizabethan era this was a very exciting time of the night for the family and most members of the family looked forward to this part of the night. Their songs were based mostly on oral tradition and native music. Most households had at least one instrument; the most common being the lute, which is similar to today's era of every family having a TV.


Elizabethan music was unique in the sense that many of the composers who composed for the Church also composed for the royalty. external image 100px-Rebac.jpgThis caused an uproar of sorts being that the Puritans wanted to do away with Church music altogether. Luckily, Elizabeth herself was big fan of music and a supporter (she employed over 70 different musicians and singers), so the music stayed in place. Thomas Tallis and William Byrd were the Chief Elizabethan composers for the Elizabethan Church. The new Protestant Church of England today still uses a variety of their melodies today. According to Elizabethan-era.org.uk, Church music included "canzonets, balletts, madrigals and 'sacred songs'.

Royalty and instruments

As mentioned above, one of the "requirements" of being royalty (more like an unsaid requirement) in the Elizabethan Era was the ability to play a musical instrument and the ability to dance. If you could not play an instrument or dance like a gentleman then you had no greater skill then the common man, so why should you be considered royalty? Again, some of the more common instruments played were the lute, or the violin.

Below is a modern day recreation of "Out of the Deep", an Elizabethan anthem.

The Waits

Polish Waits
In the Elizabethan period, the town musicians were referred to as "The Waits". Their existence goes as far back as the Medieval period, and in today's society they would be considered that of a town's band.They started out being the ones who were given and sounded high pitched pipes whenever a cause for an alarm arose.They eventually evolved into the town's entertainment, and performed at town events. They were considered the only official musicians, as traveling musicians were looked upon with suspicion (due in a large part to the many diseases that plagued this particular era).

Musical Education

Musical education
Elizabethan school portrait
The education of music took a huge change in the Elizabethan era. As mentioned before, Elizabeth was a huge supporter of music, and this became more evident as music began to be taught in school and schools for musicians began to pop up. A more famous musical school was The English Madrigal School (madrigal was a common form of secular voice music). It ran from 1588 to 1627.

Elizabethan Composers

As musicians became more popular and more in demand, more composers began to pop up, which is no surprise due to the encouragement of the Tudor Dynasty. Here is a list of the more popular composers:
  • William Byrd (1539-1623)- considered one of England's most successful, talented and popular composers. Held the nickname of "father of music". He considered his music to be "framed to the life of the words". At the young age of 19 (1563), he was appointed the main organist of the Lincoln Cathedral, which was a major feat. Also was the chief composer and organist for Queen Elizabeth.
  • John Bull (1562 or 1563–15 March 1628)- renowned keyboard player (and thus the center of most of his compositions). In 1596 he became the first professor of music at Gresham College on the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth who admired him greatly.
  • John Dowland (1523-1626)- His instrument of choice was the lute, and his great claim to fame was that of working in the royal court of Christian IV of Denmark.

Costuming in the Elizabethan Theatre

by Liz Nguyen


In Elizabethan theatre there was minimal use of scenery and props, instead, the focus was on the actors and their costumes. In the essay, “Cloathes worth all the rest: Costumes and Properties”, by Jean MacIntyre and Garrett P.J. Epp, they review the importance of costuming in Elizabethan Era plays. The essay also discusses the types of costuming that was commonly used along with the props that companies would utilize to achieve different effects on stage.

Sumptuary Laws

In Elizabethan England at the time of Thomas Dekker and his contemporaries, there were clothing laws know as the Sumptuary Laws. These laws were put into effect to maintain the social structure of their class system. So for many people it was illegal to wear certain types of clothing. So for the actors, there were special permits the Queen gave to the acting company that allowed them to wear clothing that was not a part of their class system while onstage (MacIntyre and Epp). Because of these permits, the actors could correctly portray their characters with the use of their costumes.

The Biblical Drama and Costumes

For the biblical drama, costumes were used to link past and present. This was done through a mix of costume styles. They used highly identifiable clothing to represent important characters. For example, the Virgin Mary in the York cycle would wear a blue mantle, which immediately identified her to the audience. Also, the actor playing Christ would wear red. This also translated to the Jews. In plays, Jews would often wear strange conical hats that identified them to the audience. In life, the practice was real; Jews were forced in the Elizabethan era to wear identifiable clothing to show identification of their religion (MacIntyre and Epp). Costuming in the biblical drama was essential to the play, because so many actors played multiple parts.

Costumes and Identity

Costumes in Elizabethan drama were used to identify the character that an actor portrayed. Before the companies increased in size during the late 1500’s, actors quite often played more than one part in a play. So in a play with only a few actors to play multiple parts, the costumes were essential. For example, seven actors played thirty-seven roles in the play, Cambises, King of Persia (MacIntyre and Epp). Along with offstage changing of costumes to change characters completely, playwrights often used onstage changing to differentiate between change in clothing for one character and change in character completely. Along those lines, disguises were made by characters simply by removing or adding some simple piece of clothing. This started much earlier with passion plays. For example, in The Second Shepherds’ Play, the thief Mak is disguised with a simple cloak in the opening scene, but by the end removes it (MacIntyre and Epp). This simple addition or subtraction of clothing for emphasis was greatly used by playwrights in the Elizabethan era.

Type of Costume and the Character Portrayed

Another essential topic of the Elizabethan theatre costuming choices was the type of costume used for the type of character. It was common to dress down good characters, in other words, make them plain and simple. Lavish garments were worn by bad characters. Comical costumes were of course worn by foolish characters. This made it easier for the audience to follow along with the play. As the development of theatre progressed, so did the costuming. Costuming became more elaborate and the frequency of costume changing became greater. Costuming was now being used to not only to describe the welfare and status of the character, but now used to describe the fortune of many characters. For example, costume change could convey situations such as shipwreck, enslavement, illness and mourning. Costuming continued to progress into the 1600’s as companies began to collect and purchase costumes on a more frequent scale (MacIntyre and Epp). Costumes were extremely valuable to a company, and more money was spent on them than the rest of the production in most cases. Costumes could have been linked to specific play or could be used for several different plays. The types of costumes purchased in a year influenced the types of plays that were put into production. For example, if a company purchased Spanish type clothing for one play meant that the company would perform several other plays using Spanish style clothing. This saved the company money overall.


All in all, costuming in the Elizabethan theatre era was essential for the plays. The performance’s overall look was distinguished by these elaborate forms of dress that the actors used to clearly portray their characters. The costuming allowed the plays to come alive in the audiences mind, and probably kept them coming back for years to come.


Scene from a modern reproduction of The Shoemaker's Holiday by Ohio State University 2002.

Click on the link below to see a video about Elizabethan Fashion.
Shakespeare's London: Elizabethan Fashion

Stage Properties

by Ken Lilly


A stage prop, or stage property is defined as any on stage object which performers manipulate or interact within the course of a performance. The Oxford English Dictionary defines props as "any portable article, as in article of costume or furniture, used in acting a play: a stage requisite, appurtenance, or accessory". What sets a part props from any other on stage objects is that props can be physically moved by performers and that performers can alter it through on stage interactions. Thus, any stage object can become props by the performers interacting with them. This interaction is the defining element in props, not their size, so any object, however large nor small, can be considered a prop as long as they can be interacted with and be physically moved.
The skull as a prop
For example, a piano on stage may function only as part of the scenary, however as soon as a character interacts with it, by playing it for example, it becomes a prop.

Prior to the building of Elizabethan theaters, props were not kept in a static location being that it would be inconvenient for traveling acting troupes. However, with the creation of the theaters, it allowed for a place to store props, thus allowing for more prop usage in plays. The props were generally kept in the tiring-house, or the backstage area of the theater. Props, along with actors, could also be kept below the stage referred to as 'hell', which could be accessed via trapdoors on the stage floor. A similar trapdoor is fixed on the false ceiling above the stage which is appropriately called 'heaven'. Through these trapdoors, props would be introduced or exited on stage. The heaven trapdoor would especially introduce or exit props using wires or ropes to suspend them. The props dramatic entrances and exits increases the appeal of the play to the audience to increase play attendance and in turn, the profits.

During the plays, props would be placed prior to the start of the play, and they would generally be left on stage even if they were rendered unnecessary. Props were left on stage either because they were too difficult to move or because they were so small, their presence were not obtrusive. Although, there would be certain instances where a prop may be used for a scene but then became an obstacle, necessitating the action to be paused and for that particular prop to be removed from the stage.

The Globe Theatre company managed their props through the 'prop man'. The prop man would be in the tiring-house and his main function was to make sure that the props were kept in order. He would have a list posted on the tiring-house door which details what props were to be used in a play, what scenes they would be used in, and which actor(s) would yield them.


One function of props is that they are used as symbols. A prop may draw a symbolic representation within a play through their reoccurence within the course of a specific play. Stage props may also symbolically represent abstract ideas associated with certain props. For example, use of a throne in a performance may symbolize connotations associated with the throne such as wealth or nobility; not just it's usage symbolizing the object itself. Also, prop usage provides information to the audience about the temporal setting. A character's use of a lamp on stage may suggest to the audience that it is night at that particular moment in the performance. One problem which occurs when analyzing stage props through a semiotic point of view is that it becomes difficult to differentiate when a prop is being used as a symbol as opposed to it being used merely as an object. One way to ease the difficulties of differentiating a prop as a signifier or as an object is by analyzing an object using a subject-object continuum as a gradient. In this continuum, props would gain semiotic importance once the object is used in a way unexpected from it's functional roles.

Andrew Sofer, an Assistant Professor of English from Boston College, outlined key functions of stage properties. He asserted that: "Props motivate the stage action", "props are transformational puppets", "props appear to signify independently of the actor who handles them", "props absorbs dramatic meaning and become complex symbols", "props are defamiliarized", "props are fetishized", "props are haunted mediums", and that "props come to life on stage when they confound dramatic convention".

Examples of Props

One main staple prop of the Elizabethan Theatre are the onstage weapons. The main weapon used within the Elizabethan Era were swords; varying in different sizes. The Broadsword measures around 30 inches long while the Geatswords represents the longer end of the spectrum, coming in at around 72 inches. During this era, it was mandatory for all within the Upper class Nobility to learn fencing. The wearing of a sword signified a person's Nobility and became an important piece of apparel for the Upper class. One featured prop used within the Globe Theatre was the canon, which was used to emphasize dramatic moments within a play.

One example of the sword being used as a prop would be in Thomas Middelton and Thomas Dekkar's play The Roaring Girl. In Act 3,
Moll Cutpurse wielding a Sword
Scene 1, the character Moll Cutpurse is offended by the sexual advances of Laxton, draws her sword and fights with him. Although swords may be seen as an artifact of the Noble class, Moll, who by name is a known as a cutpurse or thief, wields the sword. Here the sword acts semiotically as a defianace towards class roles; both by her wearing the sword as a piece of apparel and by wielding it. Furthermore, it challenges gender roles as the sword can be symbolized as a male artifact. By her wielding the weapon, she defies expectation of proper womanly conduct.

Swords may have been used quite often as weapons in Elizabethan theatres, there are instances where weapons took on an unfamiliar shape. One example of an unorthodox weapon would be the pestle used in Francis Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle. The character Rafe, being the servant to grocers, used Pestle which was the instrument used by grocers to grind substances in a mortar. Referring back to the subject-object gradient, the pestle can be seen as gaining semiotic importance in the sense that it is not being used in its traditional form. One way which the pestle can be seen as a symbolic prop within the play is by taking the actual word as a pun on the word "pizzle", which is a word referring to an animal's penis. When taking into account this pun, the appearance of the prop can be seen as physical emobdiment of it. Rafe being the subject of the ludicrous subplot within this play, the pestle can be seen as heightning the absurdity of this subplot.

Aside from weapons, there were other wide arrays of props used within Elizabethan theatre. One example would be the use of stocks in Ben Jonson's play Bartholomew Fair. Stocks itself can be seen as having connotations to criminals or law breakers in that it is a device to dole out punishment. However, the play defies the conventions of stocks by the interactions of select characters. Within the play, the characters Justice Adam Overdo, Zeal-of-the-land Busy, and Humphrey Wasp serves as the authority figures, however all three of these characters end up in the stocks. The stocks thus gain semiotic importance as it is used in a way which defies expectations. By these three authorative figures being locked up in the stocks, the stocks symbolizes the theme of authoritative upheaval in carnivalesque atmosphere.


Though we created some fabulous production plans, we decided to go in a completely different direction. We thought it would be interesting to set our scene in the 80's -- full of wild clothing, crazy hair styles, and plenty of "Breakfast Club" flair. Additionally, we thought we'd add yet another interesting twist; instead of human actors, we chose to use Barbie dolls. Talk about a blast from the past!
So, below are our original production plans. Enjoy and envision the various possibilities.

1) Open with the spotlight on a sparkly platform shoe, with The Bee Gee’s “Stayin’ Alive” or “How Deep is Your Love” playing in the background. A disco ball spins as the stage lights illuminate the stage, revealing a set similar to the famed Studio 54. Modified from the Elizabethan play, the Seventies version is complete with afros, platform boots, leisure suits, and hot pants. However, the costumes, and obviously the set, would be the only thing changed; the Elizabethan language and dialogue would remain true. In this adaptation, the main emphasis would be on fabulously groovy costumes. - Turiana

2) A wonderful, yet creative setting for this play would be Rodeo Drive. By expertly decorating and painting the shops will silently draw attention. Certain shops, like the shoe shop, will be painted brightly and have spotlights accenting its importance throughout the play. Likewise, stores of very little importance will be painted in pastel colors and have very little, if any lights surrounding them. As the scenes change, so too will the emphasis on certain shops. The actors movements will also help to lead the audience from shop to shop and throughout the play. Incorporating these details, will help the audience understand the multiple, interlaced themes within the play.This production will be fantastic. - Jacquelyn

3.) My own version of this play takes play during the 1940s in wartime America. The idea behind this stems from the war going on textual within the play and applying it to US history. This idea also stems from textual tension going on between the working class and the upper class, and actualizing it in the play as a conflict between the communist proletarians and the upper class bourgeoisie. - Ken

4) My version takes place in/around 1861, in the old South, during the Civil War. I got this idea from the movie Gone with the Wind, because I always thought the costuming in that movie was just absolutely beautiful. I think the movie also highlights the advances of the riches and the worries of the poor, and the things that they both worry about, as we see in the Shoemaker's Holiday. They would all be costumed in darker colors, the women wearing alot of dark maroon. - Judy

5) My production of this play would be a little different from the original. It would be set in war torn Great Britain during World War II. In my modern staging of the play, The Shoemaker's Holiday, there would a be a greater emphasis on the brutality of war, of the love between two different types of people, and of the idea of craftsmanship; through the setting, actors, and costumes chosen. - Liz

For Group Seven's Scene 9 Performance,
please click here .


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